Ars Metrica

Ars Metrica 201205

The Galician-Portuguese Lyrical Poetry in its Hispanic Context II.


Ripetizione, parallelismo e leixaprén: il testo e la musica
Ella Bernadette Nagy (Università degli Studi di Padova)

This es­say ex­am­ines the re­la­tion­ship among text, meter, and mu­sic in the Galician-Por­tuguese can­ti­gas, us­ing com­pos­i­tions that make ex­pli­cit ref­er­ence to dance forms as a point of de­par­ture. Sev­er­al find­ings point to the ex­ist­ence of the bail­ada genre in the Galician-Por­tuguese re­gion, though they are in­suf­fi­cient for de­fin­ing its pre­cise char­ac­ter­ist­ics. How­ever, the texts un­der study have cer­tain form­al traits in com­mon, such as a ba­sic aaB struc­ture, the pres­ence of a re­frán and their fre­quent use of re­pe­ti­tion. The second part of this es­say is ded­ic­ated to the role of mu­sic in the de­vel­op­ment of the re­pet­it­ive tech­niques char­ac­ter­ist­ic of the Galician-Por­tuguese school (par­al­lel­ism and leixaprén), as well as to com­pos­i­tions built on meters ana­log­ous to the Oc­cit­an bal­ada or the French rondel. The study con­cludes with an ex­am­in­a­tion of the re­la­tion­ship between rhythmic and melod­ic struc­ture in the Can­ti­gas de Santa Maria, which re­call the can­ti­gas de amigo from a form­al point of view and share af­fin­it­ies with “cho­reo­graph­ic” genres of con­tem­por­ary ro­mance-lan­guage song forms.

Uso y función del verso alejandrino en las Cantigas de Santa María
Elena González-Blanco García – Ma. Gimena del Rio Riande (Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia)

In this pa­per we study the use and func­tion of the Al­ex­an­drine, one of the most im­port­ant verses in me­di­ev­al Castili­an po­etry and in Alf­onso X’s Can­ti­gas de Santa María. Even though the King’s re­li­gious col­lec­tion has been deeply ana­lyzed in many ways, there are no stud­ies about the use and func­tions of the Al­ex­an­drine verse in the nar­rat­ive can­ti­gas. We will show how this line serves as a pat­tern to mod­el nar­rat­ive con­tent, not only in poems with a well-known source, but also in oth­er texts in which the source is un­known or tied to pop­u­lar or or­al tra­di­tion.

Questioni metriche galego-portoghesi. Sulla cosiddetta Lex Mussafia
Rachele Fassanelli (Università di Padova)

Galician-Por­tuguese po­ets make wide use of a syl­lab­ic verse design in which mas­cu­line and fem­in­ine verses of the same gross length are equated from strophe to strophe, not only jux­ta­posed in the body of a single strophe. This cor­res­pond­ence, first no­ticed by Ad­olfo Mus­safia and tra­di­tion­ally named lex Mus­safia, is an ap­par­ent vi­ol­a­tion of the most ba­sic prin­ciple of Provençal com­pos­i­tion: a giv­en verse should cor­res­pond to verses in the same po­s­i­tion in all oth­er strophes. The es­say aims to show that the com­mon in­ter­pret­a­tion of the lex is in­ex­actly con­ceived, be­cause it’s gen­er­ally re­ferred to all poems in which lines of the same num­ber of syl­lables are com­bined. The con­clu­sions of­fer an ana­lys­is of the fre­quency and dis­tri­bu­tion of this kind of re­spon­sion in the sec­u­lar Galician-Por­tuguese lyr­ic.

El tetrástico y las series monorrimas en la poesía occitano-catalana medieval
Joan Mahiques Climent (Institut National d’Histoire de l’Art)

The ana­lys­is of a large cor­pus of me­di­ev­al Catalan po­etry al­lows us to bind the use of tet­rastich and some mono­rhyme series to the Oc­cit­an-Catalan post-troubadour po­etry of thir­teenth and four­teenth cen­tur­ies. Catalan po­etry of fif­teenth and six­teenth cen­tur­ies writ­ten in mono­rhythmic lines is smal­ler in pro­por­tion to that of pre­vi­ous cen­tur­ies. Most of the works stud­ied here are re­li­gious and an­onym­ous. The ma­nu­scripts of these com­pos­i­tions are char­ac­ter­ized by met­ric­al ir­reg­u­lar­ity, al­though some poems based in pre-ex­ist­ing melod­ies, such as Veni, cre­at­or Spir­it­us, which stands out be­cause of its clear tend­ency to stroph­ic reg­u­lar­ity. In fact, some poems have mu­sic­al nota­tion or rub­rics that in­dic­ate the tone in which they might be sung. Fi­nally, it is em­phas­ized the use of oc­to­syl­lab­ic and deca­syl­lab­ic verse with caesura; and ana­phora and in­tern­al rhyme as some of the most com­mon rhet­or­ic­al devices, spe­cially in long-line stan­zas.

La métrica cancioneril en la época de los Reyes Católicos: la poesía de Pedro de Cartagena
Ana M. Rodado Ruiz (Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha)

This art­icle ana­lyzes the po­etry of Pedro de Cart­agena as a rep­res­ent­at­ive work about the uses and met­ric ar­ti­fices of the court po­etry in the age of the Cath­ol­ic Mon­archs. After a long way from the most an­cient song-books as Baena’s com­pil­a­tion (PN1) or the Can­cionero de Pala­cio (SA7), in which we can still find traces of Oc­cit­an and Galician-Por­tuguese tra­di­tions, the turn-of-the-cen­tury song-books rep­res­ent a mo­ment of full­ness in the evol­u­tion of the met­ric genres. Cartagena’s work of­fers a wide and var­ied sample of both the met­ric pref­er­ences and the high de­gree of ex­per­i­ment­a­tion reached by the po­etry dur­ing this fruit­ful lit­er­ary peri­od.


The Metrical Structure of Kashmiri Vanɨvun
Sadaf MUNSHI (University of North Texas)

Po­et­ics, as Ro­man Jakob­son states in his re­marks about po­etry in re­la­tion to lin­guist­ics, primar­ily deals with the ques­tion, “What makes a verbal mes­sage a work of art?” In or­al tra­di­tions of po­etry, vari­ous lin­guist­ic en­tit­ies are em­ployed by po­ets in the form­a­tion of met­ric­al con­straints without mak­ing them ob­vi­ous as con­scious sets of rules (See Ki­parsky 1972 [1988]: 96). Many dif­fer­ent clues are em­ployed by po­ets in tra­di­tion­al so­ci­et­ies to help un­der­stand the nature of these lin­guist­ic en­tit­ies. The main ob­ject­ives of this pa­per are: (1) to de­scribe the met­ric­al struc­ture of Vanɨvun – a pop­u­lar genre of Kash­miri folk­lore, and (2) to ana­lyze the met­ric­al constraints/peculiarities char­ac­ter­iz­ing the el­eg­ant struc­ture of this po­et­ic genre. As a po­et­ic genre, Vanɨvun poses a chal­lenge to most avail­able mod­els of po­et­ic com­pos­i­tion where PROMINENCE is treated in terms of met­ric­al asym­metry between Strong and Weak po­s­i­tions. The met­ric­al struc­ture of Vanɨvun presents a three-way dis­tinc­tion in terms of prom­in­ence where beats can be clas­si­fied as: Strong, Weak or In­ter­me­di­ate. The dis­tinc­tion is based on in­ter­play of quant­it­at­ive, po­s­i­tion­al and rhythmic factors char­ac­ter­ist­ic of Kash­miri phon­o­lo­gic­al stress (See Mun­shi & Crowhurst 2011). Un­der this view, each met­ric­al di­vi­sion (“meas­ure”) in a line typ­ic­ally be­haves like a tri­syl­lab­ic pros­od­ic word in which a primary stress falls on the first and a sec­ond­ary (“in­ter­me­di­ate”) stress on the third (fi­nal) syl­lable. The de­sired out­put is achieved through vari­ous re­pair mech­an­isms in the form of quant­ity-in­creas­ing and/or de­creas­ing strategies ap­ply­ing to the in­put. Keywords: ac­cen­tu­al verse, lex­ic­al se­lec­tion genres, met­rics, met­ric­al­ity, morpho­phon­em­ics, quant­it­at­ive verse, sprung rhythm, stress, syl­lab­ic verse, ver­si­fic­a­tion.

Keywords: ac­cen­tu­al verse, lex­ic­al se­lec­tion genres, met­rics, met­ric­al­ity, morpho­phon­em­ics, quant­it­at­ive verse, sprung rhythm, stress, syl­lab­ic verse, ver­si­fic­a­tion.